Project 1b


Trough Quality Guidelines and Advanced Water Treatment Steps


The aim of this subproject is to develop quality guidelines and advanced water treatment steps for the healthy reuse of the water produced within the LOTUSHR project. By relating the health risks of the produced water qualities to the quality needed for different reuse purposes, treatment schemes and guidelines can be formulated by which safe reusable water is ensured. 


The research will focus on a holistic assessment of LOTUSHR technologies for the removal of health-related contaminants. Based on this information, advanced treatment steps will be developed that can further remove specific contaminants of concern to increase the scope of water reuse options. To ensure safe and healthy reuse, the water qualities produced by LOTUSHR technologies will be used in quantitative microbial and chemical risk assessment methods. Altogether the collected information will contribute to the formulation of Water Reuse guidelines and Water Safety Plans.


By adding additional, or tertiary treatment technology we are able to further reduce any potential risks of the produced waters and expand on the reuse options. Tertiary treatment can be based on advanced oxidation systems, membrane technologies or UV systems. To assess the health risks of pollutants, different model contaminants will be investigated for their survival and behaviour in LOTUSHR technologies. The risk assessment method that will be used is known as “Health Impact Assessment”.


New Delhi frequently suffers from water shortages during the dry season. It is during these periods that most of the water from the Yamuna River is actually wastewater coming the city’s drains. Safe water reuse benefits the local population, agricultural and industrial sectors directly and could restore polluted rivers. The guidelines and technology that will be created are shared with stakeholders and can be used in other mega cities that suffer from similar environmental threats. 


The developed guidelines will be linked to the quality of the produced water in the LOTUSHR pre-treatment step (project 2) and the two selected nutrient removal technologies (Vital Urban Filters and Photobioreactor) with its intended use. When needed, additional treatment processes can be added to ensure sufficient water with superior quality that can be safely used. Our technology has the following features:

  • Stringent quality and safety water reuse guidelines for mega cities around the world
  • Water treatment technology is linked with the quality that is required 
  • Tailor made water treatment processes offset societal cost of potable water production


The project is a collaboration between the Indian and Dutch research institutes. The Indian side is represented by The Energy and Resources Institute, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. On the Dutch side by Delft University of Technology and IHE Institute for water Education.    

Our contributing partner is Het Waterlaboratorium, which offers us their expertise on water safety and quality monitoring.

All our partners can be found here.

Illustrations: Projekt C| Text: Steef de Valk & Maaike Spuij | Logo: Annemarie van Aken
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