To ensure that pathogens, heavy metals, organic micro pollutants and antibiotic bacteria are effectively removed from the water during treatment, the focus will lie on water treatment technology development. The magnitude of infection (or illness) will serve as an indicator to determine performance of water treatment technology or define the reuse potential of treated water.
Specific attention will be given to the type of water reuse and the related water quality requirements. The ruse of water is governed by the risk various contaminants through different exposure routes; i.e., the way people come into contact with the water depends on the activity. A health risk assessment will include exposure routes, both for microbial and chemical contaminants, and dose-response relationship.
Risk assessment traditionally is performed using individual contaminants but the focus here is to identify key reference indicators in each contaminant group and adopt a consolidated risk assessment approach for all contaminants. This holistic risk assessment approach will be able to show us what treatment technologies are required to achieve safe reusable water per specific purpose.
Additional, tertiary treatment steps might be required in addition to LOTUSHR technologies to ensure water safety, technologies that will be explored are advanced oxidation steps, such as ozone or peroxone treatment, electrocoagulation, membrane technologies such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, and UV based systems.